Professor Layton, being the intelligent puzzle master he is, leaves to Luke some extra and quite difficult puzzles for the player to complete after you complete each installment of the Professor Layton series. These difficult puzzles give you 50 to 99 Picarats and are known as Layton's Challenges.
The player unlocks one of the five "houses" (containing three puzzles) whenever you meet the certain criteria. For the first three you must beat the respective mini games. For the bottom two you must finish the main storyline for the game and you must complete every puzzle in the game excluding the three within the last house.